Showing all 9 results

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions?

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Alexander Esseesse
Stetson University College of Law J.D. Candidate, 2015

Emily Tocci
Juris Doctoral Candidate, 2015; Trainer, International Association of Human Trafficking Investigators

EXCERPT:

Human trafficking is a modern form of slavery. Victims of human trafficking are faced with numerous and complex issues ranging from bodily injury caused by physical harm to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) generated by repeated abuse, intimidation, and fear. While varying forms of human exploitation have been in existence for millennia, over the past two decades countries have taken a more serious approach to addressing the problem of human trafficking by enacting legislation, improving resources to victims, and encouraging more education of law enforcement officials. Despite the increase in the awareness of human trafficking, “most convictions still take place in only a few countries.” Between 2007 and 2008, 40% of the more than 150 countries studied in the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Global TIP Report had not secured a single human trafficking conviction. By the end of 2008, around two-thirds of the countries in the Global TIP Report had some form of law criminalizing the sexual exploitation or labor exploitation of men, women, and children. In early 2009, ninety-one countries from the Global TIP Report had prosecuted a human trafficking case with seventy-three of these countries securing convictions. The desire for countries to develop and implement human trafficking laws is on the rise, but simply enacting human trafficking laws does not mean that successful prosecutions and convictions will necessarily follow.

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D.
Former Special Deputy Attorney General, California Department of Justice

Book authors: Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten

EXCERPT:

Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery is a compilation of first-person heart breaking stories of human trafficking and enslavement. Authors Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten are directors of the American Anti-Slavery Group. Jesse Sage has appeared on National Public Radio, BET, Pacifica Radio, and has spoken widely across the country against slavery.

These stories are not told by an author summarizing their notes from interviews, rather they are the actual words of the victim themselves – their unvarnished words, written and translated in their own unique verbal dialects, using their own syntax. Telling their stories in this format allows the reader to gain a deeper understanding of their victimization. As the reader quiets their mind, you are able to hear the voice of the presenter. Within their words you will find their hurt palpable, their anger tangible, and their confusion understandable. The authors have done a commanding job of allowing the victim to tell their own story.

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Roger-Claude Liwanga, LLM
Fellow on Human Trafficking and Forced Labor Program at Harvard University’s FXB Center for Health and Human Rights

ABSTRACT:

This article estimates the contribution of child labor to the production of mined minerals and calculates the profit made by manufacturers involved in the supply chains of child-labor minerals. Several thousands of children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) work in the artisanal and small-scale mines under dangerous conditions to extract a variety of minerals, including those used in the fabrication of modern electronics. But there is no detailed data on the scope of productivity of child-miners, the value of their production at the world market, and the profit made by those buying and using their minerals. The lack of data on this issue is occasioned by the quasi-secrecy surrounding the supply chains of child-labor minerals. The paper uses a simple method of estimation based on economic assumptions and available data to calculate the contribution of child-miners in the DRC to the cobalt production at the national and international level, and to estimate the profit made by electronic manufacturers that use cobalt tainted with child-labor in their products.

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Robert Spires, PhD
Assistant Professor, Middle Grades, Secondary, Reading, & Deaf Education, Valdosta State University

ABSTRACT:

In this qualitative case study, two Thai Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) shelters/schools working with human trafficking survivors and at-risk populations of children ages 5-18 were examined. This study takes the stance that the work of the NGOs needs to be understood through the first-hand perceptions and attitudes of NGO staff and the children they serve. Education is an intervention designed to achieve the mission of both NGOs. Education is treated as a means of preventing human trafficking and protecting human trafficking survivors from returning to exploitative situations, though the effectiveness of the intervention is unclear. This study sought an understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of the staff and children at the NGOs. Thematic findings explored cultural, social, economic and political issues impacting the children served at the NGOs. The issues of statelessness and poverty as well as secondary issues were explored through interviews with students, teachers and staff at the NGOs. NGO efforts to reduce the vulnerability of children are discussed, as well as the barriers that both children and NGOs face in vulnerability reduction efforts.

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Tina Davis
International award-winning documentary maker, University of Sydney PhD Candidate, board member of the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Association.

ABSTRACT:

There has been a change in the use of the au pair scheme in the past fifteen years that has created a shift from its original intention as a cultural exchange program. Socio-economic change in societies in the South and East has led to a new wave of female migrants seeking legal work opportunities in European countries, and change in the North has led to an increase in demand for domestic workers. The au pair program has become a means to cover these needs. Yet the use of the au pair institution as a temporary domestic work system creates challenges that not only contradict its intention, but also fail to offer labor rights and protection to the migrant women who enter the program to earn money. This article examines the au pair system in Norway, a country known for social and gender equality and a strongly developed welfare system based on social democratic ideals of solidarity. The article focuses in particular on how the au pair scheme is being misused as a temporary domestic work system by both the host families and the au pairs, and the exploitation and human trafficking cases that have emerged as a consequence in recent years.

Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Rodney Green, MSc
Program Manager, Collaboratory for Strategic Partnerships and Applied Research, Messiah College

ABSTRACT:

Historically, organizations combatting trafficking for sexual exploitation in India have struggled to cooperate. Due to the multifaceted demands of protecting vulnerable populations and confronting criminal networks, a lack of cooperation can lead to interventions that are ineffective or detrimental. Multiple case studies have indicated that there are three interrelated challenges that hinder cooperation: complex political landscapes, limited vision and funding dedicated to inter-organizational relationships, and a lack of expertise in particular disciplines. One case study indicated that coordinated funding and capacity building fueled sustainable cooperation to form a counter-force that can more effectively combat sexual exploitation and trafficking in India.

Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions

$12.00

AUTHOR:

David Hartless
Municipal Police Officer, Ontario, Canada

EXCERPT:

Human Trafficking is a crime that is only recently starting to come into the consciousness of the Canadian public. Although it is an active crime occurring worldwide, it has traditionally been seen as a third world problem. Due to a combination of several high profile cases, extensive advocacy work from non-governmental organizations (NGO’s), and recent amendments to the criminal code of Canada, HT is slowly being exposed as a global organized crime problem (Interpol 2012). It is also, more specifically, a Canadian organized crime problem (Government of Canada 2011). In my opinion, the single greatest cause of Canadians’ lack of knowledge of this horrendous crime is “NIMBY” or the Not In My Back Yard view permeating people’s attitudes. Canadians as a whole generally do not believe such things can happen in this country and if it does happen, they are convinced it cannot possibly happen in their town or province. It is this attitude that needs to change. This is something that can be done only through enhanced awareness, intensive law enforcement action, and education by credible subject matter experts.

A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Davina Durgana
Adjunct Instructor and Doctoral Candidate; Human Trafficking Specialist; School of International Service, American University

EXCERPT:

This article provides the first concerted effort to combine major relevant factors measuring and contributing to vulnerability to human trafficking in the United States for statistical extrapolation of victim prevalence. While utilizing the human security framework to better conceptualize the risks of human trafficking for vulnerable individuals remains an underdeveloped academic contribution, this project proposes a theoretically more ambitious and complete response to underpin prevalence and forecasting models. Operationalizing the human security framework to capture pervasive potential risks is only the first of three parts of a comprehensive theoretical approach to assessing human trafficking vulnerability. I argue that measuring vulnerability requires consideration and isolation of first structurally pervasive threats or risks, then those that are regionally specific, and finally those that are individually experienced. The human security literature best relates to the first task of distinguishing structurally pervasive threats among the sub-population of vulnerable individuals. The control variables employed in the next stage refer to the regional specification of the model. In this project, I will have selected two control variables that account for regional legislation and protection efforts that correspond with my dependent variable of human trafficking incidences as reported to the National Human Trafficking Hotline. The final component of my operational model is theoretically derived from the requirement that in order for potential risk to become actualized or likely risk, it must be individually experienced. This is the most challenging variable to operationalize given the underdeveloped work on “Demand” in this regard, and the developed world’s particular culpability in this area. However, in order to operationalize this final component, I will incorporate one variable that relates directly to Demand, or the specific likelihood that one is to face punitive action based on their consumption of trafficked goods or sex as a deterrent based on available law enforcement data. Unfortunately, this data has notoriously demonstrated that there are significantly low prosecution and arrest rates of the general public for these crimes, which suggests a relatively non-existent deterrent to demanding trafficked sex, labor, goods, and services.

Volume 1, Issue 2 (July 2014)

$27.00

A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures

Davina Durgana (Adjunct Instructor and Doctoral Candidate; Human Trafficking Specialist; School of International Service, American University)

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions

Alexander Esseesse (Stetson University College of Law Juris Doctoral Candidate, 2015); Emily Tocci (Juris Doctoral Candidate, 2015; Trainer, International Association of Human Trafficking Investigators)

Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions

David Hartless (Municipal Police Officer, Ontario, Canada)

Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India

Rodney Green, MSc (Program Manager, Collaboratory for Strategic Partnerships and Applied Research, Messiah College)

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?

Tina Davis (International award-winning documentary maker, University of Sydney PhD Candidate, board member of the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Association)

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs

Robert Spires, PhD (Assistant Professor, Middle Grades, Secondary, Reading, & Deaf Education, Valdosta State University)

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits?

Roger-Claude Liwanga , LLM (Fellow on Human Trafficking and Forced Labor Program at Harvard University’s FXB Center for Health and Human Rights)

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten

Reviewed by Benjamin Thomas Greer (Former Special Deputy Attorney General, California Department of Justice)