Showing all 9 results

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Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Jillian LaBranche, M.A.
Associate of the Human Trafficking Center, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver

ABSTRACT

While the Lord’s Resistance Army has gained notoriety for its brutal tactics and abduction of Ugandan children, little attention has been given to the return and reintegration of these formerly abducted child soldiers. The absence of a formal reintegration program in Uganda has placed the burden of reintegration on international NGOs, but reliance on non-local organizations to successfully reintegrate child soldiers has proven challenging. This paper seeks to evaluate whether the process of reintegration in Uganda has been successful. With an overwhelming lack of up to date and methodologically sound research, variables such as PTSD, domestic violence, alcoholism, violent crime, and primary education rates are evaluated to indicate the current state of Northern Uganda. These variables indicate an unstable environment in Northern Uganda and suggest reintegration has proven unsuccessful in the Acholi region. The successful reintegration of child soldiers is demonstrated to be not merely a Ugandan issue, but an international issue.

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Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Bodean Hedwards
PhD candidate, Former Researcher, Southeast Asia, Walk Free Foundation

Katharine Bryant, M.A.
Research Manager, Walk Free Foundation

ABSTRACT

In 2014, the Walk Free Foundation released the second edition of the Global Slavery Index (the Index). The annual report estimated the number of people in modern slavery in 167 countries, assessed government responses to this issue, and examined the factors that contribute to risk of enslavement. This paper will provide an overview of the evolution of the government response component for the 2014 edition of the Index, explore the challenges involved in quantifying a government response to modern slavery through an examination of the situation in Vietnam, and highlight how the conceptual framework attempts to capture the various social, political and cultural intricacies involved in responding to modern slavery. Finally, the paper will discuss some of the limitations of applying a comprehensive framework to varied socio-political contexts, and identify potential ways forward as the Walk Free Foundation strives to address the gaps in research on responses to modern slavery.

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Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS
Currently provides investigative consultation and training to faith-based organizations that are responding to allegations of child abuse and inappropriate behavior worldwide. Her research focuses on restorative justice and better understanding the demand segment of human trafficking.

Glenn Miles, PhD
Lecturer in Childhood Studies and Child Public Health at Swansea University in Wales, UK, and Senior Research Advisor for upQ International.

James Havey
Currently working in collaboration with an NGO called Chab Dai as an LGBTQ social activist and researcher studying international standards in after-care and re-integration services and the experiences of males who were formerly sex workers.

ABSTRACT

Research on prostitution and trafficking has largely focused on the exploitation of girls and young women. This research comes out of the “Listening to the Demand” two-part study by an independent research team on the sex industry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. “Listening to the Demand” is a series of research exploring often over-looked populations in the anti-trafficking conversation, including men and transgender people. The first of the studies was completed in 2013 and focuses on men who purchased sex with female sex workers. Interviews of 50 Cambodian and 50 foreign heterosexual and bisexual males explored the respondents’ views and use of prostituted women in Southeast Asia’s sex industry. The second part of the research was completed in 2014 and focuses on men who purchase sex with men. In this second part of the project, 51 Cambodian and 23 foreign men who have sex with men were interviewed about their views of prostitution, the individual sex worker, and their experiences of Cambodia’s sex industry. Due to its comparative nature, the research seeks to deliver information on the differences in culture between the foreign and Cambodian men who seek to pay for sexual services. Results point to the need for proper sex and gender education as well as different approaches when planning projects to reach out to men purchasing sex. In gaining a deeper knowledge of the beliefs and behaviours among the demand population, the findings suggest more holistic approaches are needed to combat the exploitation of sexual services in Cambodia.

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The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM
PhD Candidate at the Fundamental Rights and Constitutionalism Research Group at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel

ABSTRACT

Human trafficking is lucrative crime, often trans border, affecting every country in the world. In the course of this crime victims are subjected heinous experiences. Consequently the crime has been described as a grave violation of human rights. However, there are those that question the legal nature of trafficking in human beings, and whether it really is a violation of human rights. This article explores the relationship between human trafficking and human rights, and analyses what are the impacts of that relationship on State’s duties to fight the crime.

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Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Kate Garbers
Managing Director of the multi-award-winning non-governmental organisation Unseen

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the United Kingdom’s approach to prosecutions and convictions of modern slavery and human trafficking offences. It focuses on the UK’s journey and the progress that it has made thus far, from having no legislation by which to tackle this crime to the newly enacted Modern Slavery Act (2015). The paper observes the low numbers of prosecutions leading to convictions as well as the difficulty in effective data collation and recording of trafficking offences. The paper focuses on a non-governmental organisations experience of working with victims and law enforcement agencies, using a sample of seventy four case files to record interactions with the criminal justice process. Further the paper suggests that in order for the Modern Slavery Act (2015) to obtain successful convictions, prosecution should only be seen as part of the solution and not the whole solution. It will only be a successful part of the UK narrative if it is used in conjunction with effective, long-term victim support and prevention efforts.

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Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Oscar Mmbali, B DIV
Doctoral Candidate and researcher at the Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand

INTRODUCTION

An International Labor Organization report (2015) indicates that over 60% of the global labor force work without formal contract. Most of this population is in developing countries. Among the waged and salaried population, less than 42% of the labor force has permanent work contract. In countries with available data; the dominant form of employment is temporal work, informal jobs with no contracts and own arrangement sometimes unpaid work. This is precipitated by long term unemployment due to previous harsh economic conditions and insecurity. Such prevailing conditions have characterized migration movements within and between countries. Over the recent years, human trafficking and migrant labor issues have continued to strike international relations discourse.

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Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery

$12.00

Book Author: Rahila Gupta

REVIEWED BY:

Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D.
International Development Doctoral Program, The University of Southern Mississippi

David L. Butler, PhD
Department of Political Science, International Development and International Affairs, The University of Southern Mississippi

INTRODUCTION

In July 2014, the authors were in London. During one afternoon, one of the authors walked from North London through the central district across the Thames River to the Southbank. During this walk, the author found a vibrant city with trade, tourists and culture all engaged in a hive of activity. During one sleepless evening, the author took the same walk between the hours of 2am-5am. The city of London was transformed at this time. Instead of vendors and tourists engaging in a silent capitalist dance, there were drug dealers, gangs, prostitutes, pimps, and law enforcement in clusters around the city. The transformation from a tourist and financial mecca to that of a haven for vices and criminal activity by the movement of the hands on tower clock that houses Big Ben was eye opening. The fact that London has a robust seedy underbelly that emerged as prominent as the Beefeaters in the Tower of London would not shock anyone who has read Rahila Gupta’s Enslaved: The New British Slavery.  Gupta is a writer, journalist and member of the Management Committee of Southall Black Sisters (SBS), a not-for-profit organization servicing the needs of black and minority ethnic women. She is the author or co-author of at least half a dozen additional books.

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Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices

$12.00

Book Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot

REVIEWED BY:

Eve Aronson, M.A.
Holds a dual cum laude Master’s degree from Utrecht University in the Netherlands and Central European University in Hungary. She writes about issues of human trafficking in the US and the Netherlands.

INTRODUCTION

In a world increasingly without boundaries, there is a need to (re)shape responses to borderless crimes accordingly. Human trafficking is a transgressive phenomenon by nature and calls for a diverse, multi-sector response. In 2009, the introduction of ‘Partnership’ to the existing Prevention-Protection-Prosecution response model for human trafficking signaled an important acknowledgement that this fourth “P” is essential to effective anti-trafficking collaboration. In her book, Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices, Dr. Kirsten Foot unpacks the cross-sector implications and manifestations of partnerships through an extensive and critical overview of the contemporary anti-trafficking landscape in the United States. Foot’s book, which is 215 pages and includes six Chapters, also includes extensive Notes and Collaboration Resources sections.

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Volume 3, Issue 1 (August 2016)

$27.00

Click the article title links to explore and purchase individual articles.

Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)

Reviewed by Eve Aronson, M.A. (Holds a dual cum laude Master’s degree from Utrecht University in the Netherlands and Central European University in Hungary. She writes about issues of human trafficking
in the US and the Netherlands.)

Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery (Author: Rahila Gupta)

Reviewed by Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D. (International Development Doctoral Program, The University of Southern Mississippi) and David L. Butler, PhD (Department of Political Science, International Development and International Affairs, The University of Southern Mississippi)

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand

Oscar Mmbali, B DIV (Doctoral Candidate and researcher at the Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand)

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK

Kate Garbers (Managing Director of the multi-award-winning non-governmental organisation Unseen)

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking

Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM (PhD Candidate at the Fundamental Rights and Constitutionalism Research Group at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel)

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia

Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS (Provides investigative consultation and training to faith-based organizations that are responding to allegations of child abuse and inappropriate behavior worldwide. Her research focuses on restorative justice and better understanding the demand segment of human trafficking); Glenn Miles, PhD (Lecturer in Childhood Studies and Child Public Health at Swansea University in Wales, UK, and Senior Research Advisor for upQ International.); James Havey (Currently working in collaboration with an NGO called Chab Dai as an LGBTQ social activist and researcher.)

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study

Bodean Hedwards (PhD candidate, Former Researcher, Southeast Asia, Walk Free Foundation) and Katharine Bryant, MA (Research Manager, Walk Free Foundation)

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda

Jillian LaBranche, M.A. (Associate of the Human Trafficking Center, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver)