Showing all 7 results

Ending Slavery

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Aidan McQuade, PhD
Director of Anti-Slavery International, the oldest international human rights organization in the world.

EXCERPT:

There is a famous line in Milan Kundera’s The Book of Laughter and Forgetting when his character Mirek asserts that “The struggle of man against power is the struggle of memory against forgetting.”

Beyond the complexities that Kundera wished to convey with in his story this idea of memory against forgetting resonates in a number of ways in relation to the contemporary struggle against slavery because before anyone can ever be convinced to take action in this struggle they must throw off the comforting myth that slavery is a thing of the past. Instead they must acknowledge that slavery remains a major contemporary problem. They must also remember that , like the human rights struggles of the past, the struggle to end contemporary slavery must of necessity emerge out of an accumulation of numberless local and national struggles waged by flawed human beings for a plurality of, sometimes self-contradictory, reasons.

This is because of the diverse nature of slavery itself: a life lived in bonded labour in Indian brick kilns is different in important respects from that of a Nepalese domestic worker in Lebanon, or a child slave working in the cocoa fields of West Africa or the cotton fields of Uzbekistan or a forced labourer in American agriculture. Hence the responses to these problems must be nuanced and adjusted to the realities of those particular abuses.

However there are some significant similarities: generally speaking, slavery emerges at the conjunction of three factors: vulnerability, usually this is poverty but it can simply be about physical weakness or social isolation in a country where you do not speak the language; discrimination; and failure of government and rule of law.

Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Bosha Bombe
B.A. in History; M.A. in Social Anthropology

ABSTRACT:

Slavery was officially abolished in Ethiopia by Emperor Haile Sellassie in 1942. Despite the abolitionary law slaves and their descendants have continually been marginalized in the country (especially in the peripheral parts of southwestern Ethiopia) from the time the law passed until today. In the Gamo community of southern Ethiopia, descendants of former slaves carry the identity of their ancestors and as the result they are often harshly excluded. Today, not only are they considered impure, but their perceived impurity is believed to be contagious; communicable to non-slave descendants during rites of passage. In order to escape the severe discrimination, slave descendants change their identity by redeeming themselves through indigenous ritual mechanism called wozzo ritual. However, the wozzo ritual builds the economy of former slave masters and ritual experts while leaving redeemed slave descendants economically damaged. This study is both diachronic and synchronic; it looks at the history of slavery, contemporary perspectives and practices of slavery and slave redemption in Ganta (Gamo) society of southern Ethiopia.

A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective

$12.00

AUTHOR:

John Donoghue
Associate Professor of History at Loyola University Chicago

ABSTRACT:

The differences between slavery now and then are less important than the historical links that bind them, links in an awful chain of bondage that bind the history of the transatlantic slave trade from Africa to the resurgence of slavery in Africa today. As this article illustrates, nowhere is this truer, both in historical and contemporary terms, than in the Congo. The links binding the Congo to the history of human bondage were first forged in the crucible of early modern capitalism and they have been made fast by the proliferation of “free market reform” today, which despite the fundamentalist cant of its advocates, has hardly proven to be a force of human liberation; instead, placing the last 500 years of the Congo region in global context, we can see how capitalism has proven to be the world’s greatest purveyor of human bondage. The article concludes with an argument that the reconstruction of civil society in the Democratic Republic of Congo after decades of war, dictatorship, and neo-colonial rule depends crucially on the continued success of an already impressive Congolese abolitionist movement. Without making an end to slavery, once and for all, civil society can hardly prosper in a country where slavery has historically brought about its destruction.

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Benjamin Thomas Greer, JD
Former Special Deputy Attorney General, California Department of Justice, Human Trafficking Special Projects Team

ABSTRACT:

Trafficking is a highly dynamic and fluid criminal phenomenon. Determined traffickers react remarkably well to consumer demand and under-regulated economic sectors and easily adapt to legislative weaknesses. Corporate globalization of manufacturing and storefronts is contributing to human trafficking; aiding in forced labor in becoming the fastest growing and the third most widespread criminal enterprise in the world. As technology advances, allowing greater and easier access to goods from more remote countries, vulnerable populations become easier targets for traffickers to exploit. Understanding U.S. markets are key destinations for goods, enlightened states are looking to bolster their anti-trafficking criminal codes by requiring businesses to better clarify their efforts to discourage human trafficking/forced labor within their supply chains. The California State Legislature has begun an aggressive approach aimed at fostering greater public awareness of slave labor by requiring certain businesses to clearly articulate their anti-trafficking/anti-forced labor policies. California was the first government – local, state or federal – to codify mandatory policy disclosures. The California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 requires businesses domiciled in California and earning more that $100 million to conspicuously disclose on their publically accessed webpage, what policies, if any, they have implemented to detect and fight slave labor. The legislature intended to equip the common consumer with the needed information to effectively hold businesses accountable for human rights abuses. In order for the public to properly hold businesses accountable for their labor practices, it is essential the names of business subject to the disclosure be made public. The California Public Records Act should be a tool for concerned consumers and advocates to obtain the statutory list of affected companies.

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Roger-Claude Liwanga, JD
Harvard Fellow, Visiting Scholar with Boston University’s African Studies Center, Founder of Promote Congo

ABSTRACT:

This paper highlights the necessity of adopting a comprehensive anti-human trafficking law in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC ratified a number of international instruments prohibiting human trafficking, such as the Palermo Protocol, which recommend it to take legislative measures against human trafficking domestically. But so far, the DRC has not yet adopted a comprehensive anti-human trafficking law. With the increasing prevalence of human trafficking, the existing fragmented provisions on trafficking in the DRC (catalogued within the Law 06/018 amending the Penal Code, the Labor Code and the Law 09/001 on the Protection of the Child) are not sufficient to address the scourge, given the limited scope of their regulation of human trafficking. Countless victims of trafficking, particularly adults who are subjected to bonded labor, are unprotected by the law. Following the example of comprehensive anti-human trafficking legislations in the United States, Italy, Burkina Faso, Kenya or South Africa, the DRC should also adopt its own version of comprehensive anti-human trafficking law to increase its likelihood of effectively protecting trafficking victims, investigating trafficking offences, prosecuting trafficking offenders, and deterring potential traffickers. This paper recommends a sketch of a holistic anti-human trafficking law which is adapted to the DRC’s context.

Volume 1, Issue 1 (February 2014)

$27.00

Unlocking the Science of Slavery

Kevin Bales, PhD (Professor of Contemporary Slavery at the Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation, co-founder of Free the Slaves)

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking

Roger-Claude Liwanga, J.D. (Harvard Fellow, Visiting Scholar with Boston University’s African Studies Center, Founder of Promote Congo)

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?

Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D. (Former Special Deputy Attorney General, California Department of Justice, Human Trafficking Special Projects Team)

A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective

John Donoghue (Associate Professor of History at Loyola University Chicago)

Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia

Bosha Bombe (B.A. in History; M.A. in Social Anthropology)

Ending Slavery

Aidan McQuade, PhD (Director of Anti-Slavery International, the oldest international human rights organization in the world)

Unlocking the Science of Slavery

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Kevin Bales, PhD
Professor of Contemporary Slavery at the Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation; co-founder of Free the Slaves

EXCERPT:

After the Battle of Britain, in late 1942, Winston Churchill famously said, “Now this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end, but it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.” In the world of anti-slavery research and campaigning it can be argued that we are now approaching the “end of the beginning” of this the fourth great anti-slavery movement in human history. From a simplistic, emotive, disparate, and disorganized minority cause, slavery is quickly becoming an issue of global concern, and is now generating global responses. This has occurred for a number of reasons: increased awareness, a recognition of the possibility of eradication, and a growing understanding of the economic and social cost of slavery are just a few of those reasons. There is history to be written of the opening stages of this anti-slavery movement, but as we clamber over this tipping point it is time to think hard about the future.

From Volume 1, Issue 1
February 2014