Showing 1–16 of 32 results

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda

AUTHOR:

Jillian LaBranche, M.A.
Associate of the Human Trafficking Center, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver

ABSTRACT

While the Lord’s Resistance Army has gained notoriety for its brutal tactics and abduction of Ugandan children, little attention has been given to the return and reintegration of these formerly abducted child soldiers. The absence of a formal reintegration program in Uganda has placed the burden of reintegration on international NGOs, but reliance on non-local organizations to successfully reintegrate child soldiers has proven challenging. This paper seeks to evaluate whether the process of reintegration in Uganda has been successful. With an overwhelming lack of up to date and methodologically sound research, variables such as PTSD, domestic violence, alcoholism, violent crime, and primary education rates are evaluated to indicate the current state of Northern Uganda. These variables indicate an unstable environment in Northern Uganda and suggest reintegration has proven unsuccessful in the Acholi region. The successful reintegration of child soldiers is demonstrated to be not merely a Ugandan issue, but an international issue.

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study

AUTHORS:

Bodean Hedwards
PhD candidate, Former Researcher, Southeast Asia, Walk Free Foundation

Katharine Bryant, M.A.
Research Manager, Walk Free Foundation

ABSTRACT

In 2014, the Walk Free Foundation released the second edition of the Global Slavery Index (the Index). The annual report estimated the number of people in modern slavery in 167 countries, assessed government responses to this issue, and examined the factors that contribute to risk of enslavement. This paper will provide an overview of the evolution of the government response component for the 2014 edition of the Index, explore the challenges involved in quantifying a government response to modern slavery through an examination of the situation in Vietnam, and highlight how the conceptual framework attempts to capture the various social, political and cultural intricacies involved in responding to modern slavery. Finally, the paper will discuss some of the limitations of applying a comprehensive framework to varied socio-political contexts, and identify potential ways forward as the Walk Free Foundation strives to address the gaps in research on responses to modern slavery.

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia

AUTHORS:

Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS
Currently provides investigative consultation and training to faith-based organizations that are responding to allegations of child abuse and inappropriate behavior worldwide. Her research focuses on restorative justice and better understanding the demand segment of human trafficking.

Glenn Miles, PhD
Lecturer in Childhood Studies and Child Public Health at Swansea University in Wales, UK, and Senior Research Advisor for upQ International.

James Havey
Currently working in collaboration with an NGO called Chab Dai as an LGBTQ social activist and researcher studying international standards in after-care and re-integration services and the experiences of males who were formerly sex workers.

ABSTRACT

Research on prostitution and trafficking has largely focused on the exploitation of girls and young women. This research comes out of the “Listening to the Demand” two-part study by an independent research team on the sex industry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. “Listening to the Demand” is a series of research exploring often over-looked populations in the anti-trafficking conversation, including men and transgender people. The first of the studies was completed in 2013 and focuses on men who purchased sex with female sex workers. Interviews of 50 Cambodian and 50 foreign heterosexual and bisexual males explored the respondents’ views and use of prostituted women in Southeast Asia’s sex industry. The second part of the research was completed in 2014 and focuses on men who purchase sex with men. In this second part of the project, 51 Cambodian and 23 foreign men who have sex with men were interviewed about their views of prostitution, the individual sex worker, and their experiences of Cambodia’s sex industry. Due to its comparative nature, the research seeks to deliver information on the differences in culture between the foreign and Cambodian men who seek to pay for sexual services. Results point to the need for proper sex and gender education as well as different approaches when planning projects to reach out to men purchasing sex. In gaining a deeper knowledge of the beliefs and behaviours among the demand population, the findings suggest more holistic approaches are needed to combat the exploitation of sexual services in Cambodia.

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking

AUTHOR:

Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM
PhD Candidate at the Fundamental Rights and Constitutionalism Research Group at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel

ABSTRACT

Human trafficking is lucrative crime, often trans border, affecting every country in the world. In the course of this crime victims are subjected heinous experiences. Consequently the crime has been described as a grave violation of human rights. However, there are those that question the legal nature of trafficking in human beings, and whether it really is a violation of human rights. This article explores the relationship between human trafficking and human rights, and analyses what are the impacts of that relationship on State’s duties to fight the crime.

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK

AUTHOR:

Kate Garbers
Managing Director of the multi-award-winning non-governmental organisation Unseen

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the United Kingdom’s approach to prosecutions and convictions of modern slavery and human trafficking offences. It focuses on the UK’s journey and the progress that it has made thus far, from having no legislation by which to tackle this crime to the newly enacted Modern Slavery Act (2015). The paper observes the low numbers of prosecutions leading to convictions as well as the difficulty in effective data collation and recording of trafficking offences. The paper focuses on a non-governmental organisations experience of working with victims and law enforcement agencies, using a sample of seventy four case files to record interactions with the criminal justice process. Further the paper suggests that in order for the Modern Slavery Act (2015) to obtain successful convictions, prosecution should only be seen as part of the solution and not the whole solution. It will only be a successful part of the UK narrative if it is used in conjunction with effective, long-term victim support and prevention efforts.

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand

AUTHOR:

Oscar Mmbali, B DIV
Doctoral Candidate and researcher at the Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand

INTRODUCTION

An International Labor Organization report (2015) indicates that over 60% of the global labor force work without formal contract. Most of this population is in developing countries. Among the waged and salaried population, less than 42% of the labor force has permanent work contract. In countries with available data; the dominant form of employment is temporal work, informal jobs with no contracts and own arrangement sometimes unpaid work. This is precipitated by long term unemployment due to previous harsh economic conditions and insecurity. Such prevailing conditions have characterized migration movements within and between countries. Over the recent years, human trafficking and migrant labor issues have continued to strike international relations discourse.

Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery

Book Author: Rahila Gupta

REVIEWED BY:

Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D.
International Development Doctoral Program, The University of Southern Mississippi

David L. Butler, PhD
Department of Political Science, International Development and International Affairs, The University of Southern Mississippi

INTRODUCTION

In July 2014, the authors were in London. During one afternoon, one of the authors walked from North London through the central district across the Thames River to the Southbank. During this walk, the author found a vibrant city with trade, tourists and culture all engaged in a hive of activity. During one sleepless evening, the author took the same walk between the hours of 2am-5am. The city of London was transformed at this time. Instead of vendors and tourists engaging in a silent capitalist dance, there were drug dealers, gangs, prostitutes, pimps, and law enforcement in clusters around the city. The transformation from a tourist and financial mecca to that of a haven for vices and criminal activity by the movement of the hands on tower clock that houses Big Ben was eye opening. The fact that London has a robust seedy underbelly that emerged as prominent as the Beefeaters in the Tower of London would not shock anyone who has read Rahila Gupta’s Enslaved: The New British Slavery.  Gupta is a writer, journalist and member of the Management Committee of Southall Black Sisters (SBS), a not-for-profit organization servicing the needs of black and minority ethnic women. She is the author or co-author of at least half a dozen additional books.

Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices

Book Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot

REVIEWED BY:

Eve Aronson, M.A.
Holds a dual cum laude Master’s degree from Utrecht University in the Netherlands and Central European University in Hungary. She writes about issues of human trafficking in the US and the Netherlands.

INTRODUCTION

In a world increasingly without boundaries, there is a need to (re)shape responses to borderless crimes accordingly. Human trafficking is a transgressive phenomenon by nature and calls for a diverse, multi-sector response. In 2009, the introduction of ‘Partnership’ to the existing Prevention-Protection-Prosecution response model for human trafficking signaled an important acknowledgement that this fourth “P” is essential to effective anti-trafficking collaboration. In her book, Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices, Dr. Kirsten Foot unpacks the cross-sector implications and manifestations of partnerships through an extensive and critical overview of the contemporary anti-trafficking landscape in the United States. Foot’s book, which is 215 pages and includes six Chapters, also includes extensive Notes and Collaboration Resources sections.

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions?

AUTHORS:

Alexander Esseesse
Stetson University College of Law J.D. Candidate, 2015

Emily Tocci
Juris Doctoral Candidate, 2015; Trainer, International Association of Human Trafficking Investigators

EXCERPT:

Human trafficking is a modern form of slavery. Victims of human trafficking are faced with numerous and complex issues ranging from bodily injury caused by physical harm to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) generated by repeated abuse, intimidation, and fear. While varying forms of human exploitation have been in existence for millennia, over the past two decades countries have taken a more serious approach to addressing the problem of human trafficking by enacting legislation, improving resources to victims, and encouraging more education of law enforcement officials. Despite the increase in the awareness of human trafficking, “most convictions still take place in only a few countries.” Between 2007 and 2008, 40% of the more than 150 countries studied in the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Global TIP Report had not secured a single human trafficking conviction. By the end of 2008, around two-thirds of the countries in the Global TIP Report had some form of law criminalizing the sexual exploitation or labor exploitation of men, women, and children. In early 2009, ninety-one countries from the Global TIP Report had prosecuted a human trafficking case with seventy-three of these countries securing convictions. The desire for countries to develop and implement human trafficking laws is on the rise, but simply enacting human trafficking laws does not mean that successful prosecutions and convictions will necessarily follow.

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII

AUTHORS:

Jesse Bach, PhD
Cleveland State University. Executive Director of The Imagine Foundation

Courtney Mintz
Student, Business Administration and Criminal Justice, University of Dubuque

Jennifer Dohy, MS
Doctoral Candidate, MS and BS in Education, Cleveland State University

ABSTRACT

The Super Bowl is commonly known as the single largest human trafficking incident in the United States where an inordinate number of children may be trafficked in or around the host area to engage in commercial sex. To examine this claim, our research team mined publicly available data from a major website known to host commercial sex advertisements for three months before and two months after Super Bowl XLVIII, held in East Rutherford, New Jersey.

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client

AUTHORS:

Lori Celaya, PhD
Assistant Professor of Spanish, Latin America, Border and US Latino Studies, University of Idaho Department of Modern Languages and Cultures

Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD
University of Idaho Department of Modern Languages and Cultures

INTRODUCTION

In spite of efforts initiated in 1926 by the League of Nations, (presently, the United Nations, 1946) or by the members of international organizations that signed the most recent protocols to address the issue of human trafficking in November of 2000, the problem persists and positive outcomes have not materialized. Subsequently, Mexico has introduced national efforts to eliminate human trafficking. In fact, these initiatives are subsequent to the efforts launched by the United Nations in 2000 and were passed in 2007, specifically to address these human rights violations: the first one, “The General Law Granting Access to Women to a Violence-Free Life,” and a second decree, specifically addressing human trafficking, “Law to Prevent and Condemn Human Trafficking” (Acharya 2012, 638-9). These laws are significant, since prior to their creation no legal framework existed in Mexico to address human trafficking.

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts

AUTHORS:

Erica Baer, PhD
Instructor of Forensics, Department of Justice Studies, Florida Gulf Coast University. PhD, Forensic Psychology, Alliant International University Research associate with the Resource Center on Human Trafficking at FGCU

Refael Olivares, MA
Coordinator, Resource Center on Human Trafficking, Florida Gulf Coast University. MA, Counseling Psychology, Hodges University. Several years experience in agencies serving human trafficking victims. Past chair of the SW Florida Coalition on Human Trafficking and until his appointment in 2013 as Coordinator of the FGCU Resource Center served as Program Director for Human Trafficking for Catholic Charities, SW Florida Region.

Johnny McGaha, PhD
Professor and Director, Resource Center on Human Trafficking, Florida Gulf Coast University, Department of Justice Studies. Several publications and national presentations on Human Trafficking. Training consultant to the Department of State/Homeland Security and to the Republic of Moldova’s Center to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Program evaluator DOJ grants on Human Trafficking and Victims Services, Fort Myers, Florida. Former Chair, Lee County (FL) Task Force on Human trafficking. Founder, Resource Center on Human Trafficking

Tama Koss Caldron, JD
Assistant U.S. Attorney, Middle District of Florida. JD, University of Florida. Several years experience as federal prosecutor including successful prosecution of trafficking cases.Currently Chair, SW Florida Regional Task Force on Human Trafficking

ABSTRACT

The hidden nature of the horrendous crime of trafficking in persons makes it difficult to accurately determine the extent of the problem, both nationally and locally. Additionally, the complexities, time consuming investigations, resource and jurisdictional challenges, issues with traumatized victims who are often reluctant to identify, and/or testify against the traffickers, all result in low levels of prosecution. Any successful outcome of these difficult cases mandates the strong communication and collaboration of all agencies involved, including law enforcement, prosecution, and a variety of victim’s services. This paper presents one relatively successful task force model.

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova

AUTHOR:

Nicole Fiorentino, MA
Doctoral Candidate, International Conflict Management, Kennesaw State University. MA, Central and Eastern European Studies, La Salle University. BA, San Diego State University

INTRODUCTION

The Republic of Moldova has, in recent years, strengthened its legislation in relation to the crime of human trafficking. The country’s current legislation focuses on four areas: 1) the protection of victims; 2) prosecution of criminals; 3) prevention of the crime; and 4) partnership of stakeholders. This paper will identify and analyze the prosecutorial legislation existing in the Moldovan Criminal Code, initially in the broader context of Trafficking in Human Beings as a whole, and subsequently concentrating on each of the aforementioned areas, applicable to Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking and Child Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova.

Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking

AUTHOR:

Eileen P. Scully

Historian on the faculty of Bennington College in Vermont

ABSTRACT

Modern international trafficking in forced labor took hold during the 1850s, and crossed into the twentieth century as a seemingly intractable global phenomenon. Contemporaries described this worldwide enterprise as the “white slave trade.” As shorthand for sex-trafficking, “the white slave trade” has a very long pedigree. The first cross-national, public-private coalition against trafficking in women and children was forged in the late nineteenth century by the London-based National Vigilance Association. This coalition generated the foundational treaties and directional momentum for international anti-trafficking projects across the twentieth century and into the twenty-first.

Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas

AUTHORS:

Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD

Professor of Clinical Mental Health Counseling at Hodges University in Fort Myers, Florida. Licensed Social Worker. Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist

Yaroslaba Garcia, MA

Doctoral Candidate. Clinical Director at Abuse Counseling and Treatment, Inc. President of the Southwest Florida Coalition Against Human Trafficking. Adjunct Professor at Hodges University

INTRODUCTION

Human Trafficking (HT) literature identifies restricted or narrowly focused funding and difficulty with the coordination of services for HT survivors. This focus group study attempts to discern service strengths and issues at the local level in Lee and Collier counties in Southwest Florida. A three step grounded theory process was utilized in order to analyze the focus group data. The unprecedented level of survivor need was theorized to strain the existing services network. HT cases expose less organized parts of the service network which highlights a lack of organized funding sources and less efficiency. The addition of an essential fourth P (partnership), to prevention, protection and prosecution efforts, would guide efforts toward more evolved service networks. Suggestions include creation of a state level entity which can manage a regionally coordinated case management system, and the establishment of a clearinghouse for data and research.

Considering a Regional Approach to Combating Human Trafficking in the Caribbean: The ECOWAS Example

AUTHORS:

Jill St. John, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC)
Lecturer in Law, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill
Tom Durbin, 
LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC)
Lecturer in Law, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill

ABSTRACT:

This paper seeks to explore the current practices employed in two regional organisations with regards combating human trafficking. Both West Africa, through ECOWAS, and the Caribbean, through CARICOM, have established regional agreements with neighbouring states to achieve regional cooperation where possible. However CARICOM policies are in their infancy with regards human trafficking, while ECOWAS has a vast network of agreements in place. This paper will consider the successes of the ECOWAS agreements and their possible assistance and relevance to the Caribbean to assist in CARICOM’s fight against human trafficking.