Modern Slavery, Environmental Destruction and Climate Change: Fisheries, Field, Forests and Factories

Modern slavery and climate change have emerged as concurrent crises in the contemporary world. While these phenomena have been well-established separately in recent academic and policy-based debates, little discussion has taken place on the interconnections between them. An emerging area of research has begun to interrogate aspects of the nexus between modern slavery, environmental destruction and climate change, but a review of the existing literature in the area remains lacking.


BLOOD BRICKS: Untold Stories of Modern Slavery and Climate Change from Cambodia

In Cambodia, as in many other countries, economic growth has not led to decent work for all. In fact, quite the opposite scenario has been unfolding over the past years: Poor farmers who are unable to earn a living from agriculture as a consequence of climate change move to urban and peri-urban areas and become victims of forced and of bonded labour which are contemporary forms of slavery. In this way, the economic growth which flourishes due to a booming construction industry has created in itself a trap for the poor and vulnerable. It is a vicious cycle which is enabled by development which is not sustainable. Not for the environment and not for the people who are behind it. To break this vicious and dangerous cycle, the interlinkages between contemporary forms of slavery and climate change need to be understood by the government of Cambodia in order to create viable alternatives. The present report illustrates these linkages in an eye-opening way, shedding light on a so far scarcely researched yet so essential subject.


“Because if we talk about health issues first, it is easier to talk about human trafficking”; findings from a mixed methods study on health needs and service provision among migrant and trafficked fishermen in the Mekong

Human trafficking in the fishing industry or “sea slavery” in the Greater Mekong Subregion is reported to involve some of the most extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. A largely unregulated sector, commercial fishing boats operate in international waters far from shore and outside of national jurisdiction, where workers are commonly subjected to life-threatening risks. Yet, research on the health needs of trafficked fishermen is sparse.

This paper describes abuses, occupational hazards, physical and mental health and post-trafficking well-being among a systematic consecutive sample of 275 trafficked fishermen using post-trafficking services in Thailand and Cambodia. These findings are complemented by qualitative interview data collected with 20 key informants working with fishermen or on issues related to their welfare in Thailand.


FACT SHEET: Human Trafficking and Health Care Providers

Health care providers have an important, proactive role to play in combating human trafficking in the United States. With proper training, health care providers can play a significant part in identifying and caring for trafficking victims.4 Medical personnel can also document injuries, testify as expert witnesses, and provide affidavits for submission in legal cases. But in order to be able to identify trafficking cases, health care providers must be familiar with red flags and trafficking indicators.

This fact sheet highlights medical components of case studies drawn directly from federal criminal indictments and civil trafficking complaints. These case studies provide documented incidents that illustrate how human trafficking has presented in health care settings. It is hoped that these concrete examples gleaned from legal cases will assist medical professionals in recognizing red flags and risk factors.


U.S. Legal Remedies for Minor Victims of Sex Tourism and Sex Trafficking

In 2003, the United States Congress passed a law to fight sex tourism and sexual abuse of children. Congress titled the law the Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End
the Exploitation of Children Today (“PROTECT”) Act.1 Under the PROTECT Act, any U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident who sexually abuses or exploits children, anywhere in the world, can be held accountable in U.S. federal courts….


Time to break old habits: Shifting from Complicity to Protection of the Rohingya in Myanmar

This study outlines the need for the international community in Myanmar to dramatically change gears in their approach if they are to break out of a cycle of passive complicity with ethnic cleansing and make a more lasting contribution to protecting the persecuted Rohingya Muslim minority in Myanmar. The article analyzes years of secrecy, self-censorship and silent compliance with government policies of abuse. It calls on all actors to engage in more forthright reporting and advocacy, confronting government harassment more boldly. It further urges donors and agencies to stop all support to ethnic detention centres and to strictly condition all their future contributions and programming in Myanmar – linking such support to the granting of freedom of movement and other rights to the Rohingya.


U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report 2018

This year’s report focuses on effective ways local communities can address human trafficking proactively and on how national governments can support and empower them. Local communities are the most affected by this abhorrent crime and are also the first line of defense against human trafficking. By engaging and training law enforcement, religious leaders, teachers, tribal elders, business executives, and communities, we become more vigilant and learn to identify and address vulnerabilities swiftly. Proactive community-driven measures strengthen our ability to protect our most vulnerable and weaken a criminal’s ability to infiltrate, recruit, and exploit.


Read the transcript of the remarks given at the release of the report (including a video link) HERE.

U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report 2017

In particular, the introduction of this year’s Report focuses on the responsibility of governments to criminalize human trafficking and hold offenders accountable. To that end, this Report is intended to assist governments in identifying threats so law enforcement agencies around the world can respond effectively and gain insight into where human trafficking remains most severe. The Report will also equip local and sub-national law enforcement agencies to better assist in efforts to target and prosecute those who commit these terrible crimes.


Watch video of the announcement ceremony HERE

How Footwear Companies and Luxury Brands Tackle Forced Labor Risks in Their Leather Supply Chains

This case study assesses how a sample of five footwear companies and five luxury clothing brands address forced labor risks across their leather supply chains. The study follows KnowTheChain’s first apparel and footwear benchmark which found a lack of transparency and action to address forced labor abuses beyond first-tier suppliers, particularly in leather.


The Freedom Fund Annual Impact Report 2016

More organisations are joining the anti-slavery movement, and forward-looking businesses are beginning to seriously tackle the risks of slavery in their supply chains. But so much more remains to be done, with an estimated 46 million people still enslaved and exploited around the world. At the Freedom Fund, our focus has been on dismantling the local and national systems that enable slavery in countries with the heaviest burden of this crime.


Forced Labor Action Compared: Findings From Three Sectors

Last year, KnowTheChain identified three sectors with the highest risk of forced labor in their supply chains and benchmarked 60 companies within those sectors. It was the first analysis of its kind, focusing specifically on forced labor risks and the corporate policies and practices developed by companies in response. In order to build on the momentum of this first set of reports, KnowTheChain worked to identify lessons and recommendations that can benefit companies across all sectors. This report is the product of those efforts.


The Typology of Modern Slavery: Defining Sex and Labor Trafficking in the United States

Polaris analyzed more than 32,000 cases of human trafficking documented between December 2007 and December 2016 through its operation of the National Human Trafficking Hotline and BeFree Textline. This is the largest data set on human trafficking in the United States ever compiled and publically analyzed. The Typology of Modern Slavery offers a map for taking the next steps in creating a world without slavery.


The Modern Day Slavery Survey 2017 Report

The Modern Day Slavery Survey 2017 was designed to shed light on the working practices of supply chain and procurement professionals in their attempts to comply with the Modern Slavery Act 2015. Since the introduction of the Act in 2015, anecdotal evidence from UK businesses has given a glimpse into the dif cult situation procurement, supply chain and HSE teams have been placed into, to ensure they are complying with this new legislation. This report on Modern Day Slavery proves where businesses are currently failing and what they anticipate to do to ensure full compliance in the future.


2016 Freedom From Slavery Forum Report

The Freedom from Slavery Forum was designed to provide a place for leaders of the global anti-human trafficking and anti-slavery movement to come together, share and discuss best practices and lessons learned, identify gaps in the field, brainstorm new ideas, and build relationships with one another. Additionally, the Forum is meant to educate the public about this issue. Accordingly, the 2016 Forum was a two day event comprised of private meetings among anti-slavery experts, followed by a public panel discussion on the ways the electronics and fishing industries deal with issues of slavery and trafficking in their supply chains.


Understanding and Responding to Modern Slavery within the Homelessness Sector

Homelessness organisations and anti-slavery organisations have both been aware of links between modern slavery and homelessness, yet there has been little research into how these issues overlap and impact on one another. An initial scoping exercise was, therefore, commissioned in 2016 by the UK’s Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner, Kevin Hyland OBE, to gain a better understanding of modern slavery within the homelessness sector. The Passage, a leading homelessness charity, was appointed to look into this issue.



Girl soldiers in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) experience severe hardships – both in the ranks of armed groups and after returning home. Programmes that support the release, recovery and reintegration of girl soldiers have so far been woefully inadequate. Only a small percentage of girls leave armed groups through formal demobilisation processes, and an even smaller number receive any assistance. Following extensive consultations with DRC-based child protection partners in 2012-2015, Child Soldiers International travelled to eastern DRC in early 2016. We conducted interviews with 150 former girl soldiers, and spoke to community and child protection representatives. Our ?ndings will form a set of best practice principles to improve assistance to former child soldiers, with a particular focus on the speci?c needs of girls.


Financing Forced Labor

Sixty years have passed since the adoption of ILO Convention No. 105 (Abolition of Forced Labor Convention, 1957), yet a number of States have persisted in using forced labor for economic development, the eradication of which was a driving force behind establishing the Convention. Nowhere in the world is this problem more entrenched and pervasive than Uzbekistan.


Human Trafficking and Public Corruption

Corruption is an endemic feature of human trafficking. It is common to both sex and labour trafficking. Corruption enables traffickers’ often-successful efforts to evade justice. Examples abound: a police officer demands a bribe to ignore the presence of a child in a brothel; an immigration official receives payment to provide a forged passport; a judge dismisses a trafficking case in exchange for a share of the traffickers’ profits; a law enforcement official deports a trafficking victim to prevent her testimony against a criminal defendant; a government official accepts a bribe to fraudulently provide residency permits for foreign workers.


Food & Beverage Benchmark Findings Report: How are 20 of the largest companies addressing forced labor in their supply chains?

The food and beverage industry is an at-risk sector. Forced labor occurs both in the production of raw materials and during the food processing stages of food and beverage companies’ supply chains. Food commodities are produced by agricultural workers who often come from vulnerable groups such as women, international migrants, and internal migrants with little education. Weak labor laws and law enforcement in the sector, together with isolated workplaces where housing tends to be provided by the employer, aggravate the typically poor working conditions and can leave workers vulnerable and dependent on their employer.


Fighting human trafficking in conflict: 10 Ideas for Action by the United Nations Security Council

Workshop Participants considered that the role of the Security Council will need to vary, depending on the nature of the human trafficking activity. In some cases, it may be direct and disruptive. In others it may be more normative, or may involve shaping the UN’s field response. In each of these areas, the Security Council can also take action to encourage and support other actors – Member States, regional organizations, the private sector-to pay attention to and address human trafficking in conflict.


U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report 2015

Focuses on the importance of effective victim identification, and on those approaches and policies that have succeeded in bringing victims out of the darkness of exploitation. The Report outlines specific steps officials should take—from legislators and judges to police officers and border guards—to make sure the victims of this crime don’t go unrecognized. And it illustrates why identifying victims by itself is not enough—they need to be given a true voice in the process.


Watch the video of the announcement ceremony HERE.

MÁS QUE BEBIDAS A LA VENTA: Desvelando Las Redes de Trata Sexual en Bares Y Cantinas Estadounidenses

Miles de mujeres latinas o hispanas son prisioneras de la industria de la trata sexual en bares y establecimientos tipo cantina a lo largo de los Estados Unidos. Son reclutadas y controladas por redes criminales, propietarios de negocios o tratantes independientes. Las engañan y seducen con promesas de relaciones románticas, buenos empleos y cruce seguro por la frontera hasta los Estados Unidos. Otras mujeres y niñas se ven forzadas a vender sexo por sus padres, familiares o parejas sentimentales.

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MORE THAN DRINKS FOR SALE: Exposing Sex Trafficking in Cantinas & Bars in the U.S.

Based on data from the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) hotline and Polaris’s BeFree Textline, More than Drinks for Sale sheds light on the unseen realities faced by young women and girls from Latin America who are trapped in an underground sex economy operating out of cantinas and bars across the U.S. – and why their traffickers remain largely untouched.