SLAVERY TODAY JOURNAL Articles by Issue

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Volume 3, Issue 1 (August 2016)

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Jillian LaBranche, M.A.
Associate of the Human Trafficking Center, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver

ABSTRACT

While the Lord’s Resistance Army has gained notoriety for its brutal tactics and abduction of Ugandan children, little attention has been given to the return and reintegration of these formerly abducted child soldiers. The absence of a formal reintegration program in Uganda has placed the burden of reintegration on international NGOs, but reliance on non-local organizations to successfully reintegrate child soldiers has proven challenging. This paper seeks to evaluate whether the process of reintegration in Uganda has been successful. With an overwhelming lack of up to date and methodologically sound research, variables such as PTSD, domestic violence, alcoholism, violent crime, and primary education rates are evaluated to indicate the current state of Northern Uganda. These variables indicate an unstable environment in Northern Uganda and suggest reintegration has proven unsuccessful in the Acholi region. The successful reintegration of child soldiers is demonstrated to be not merely a Ugandan issue, but an international issue.

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Bodean Hedwards
PhD candidate, Former Researcher, Southeast Asia, Walk Free Foundation

Katharine Bryant, M.A.
Research Manager, Walk Free Foundation

ABSTRACT

In 2014, the Walk Free Foundation released the second edition of the Global Slavery Index (the Index). The annual report estimated the number of people in modern slavery in 167 countries, assessed government responses to this issue, and examined the factors that contribute to risk of enslavement. This paper will provide an overview of the evolution of the government response component for the 2014 edition of the Index, explore the challenges involved in quantifying a government response to modern slavery through an examination of the situation in Vietnam, and highlight how the conceptual framework attempts to capture the various social, political and cultural intricacies involved in responding to modern slavery. Finally, the paper will discuss some of the limitations of applying a comprehensive framework to varied socio-political contexts, and identify potential ways forward as the Walk Free Foundation strives to address the gaps in research on responses to modern slavery.

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS
Currently provides investigative consultation and training to faith-based organizations that are responding to allegations of child abuse and inappropriate behavior worldwide. Her research focuses on restorative justice and better understanding the demand segment of human trafficking.

Glenn Miles, PhD
Lecturer in Childhood Studies and Child Public Health at Swansea University in Wales, UK, and Senior Research Advisor for upQ International.

James Havey
Currently working in collaboration with an NGO called Chab Dai as an LGBTQ social activist and researcher studying international standards in after-care and re-integration services and the experiences of males who were formerly sex workers.

ABSTRACT

Research on prostitution and trafficking has largely focused on the exploitation of girls and young women. This research comes out of the “Listening to the Demand” two-part study by an independent research team on the sex industry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. “Listening to the Demand” is a series of research exploring often over-looked populations in the anti-trafficking conversation, including men and transgender people. The first of the studies was completed in 2013 and focuses on men who purchased sex with female sex workers. Interviews of 50 Cambodian and 50 foreign heterosexual and bisexual males explored the respondents’ views and use of prostituted women in Southeast Asia’s sex industry. The second part of the research was completed in 2014 and focuses on men who purchase sex with men. In this second part of the project, 51 Cambodian and 23 foreign men who have sex with men were interviewed about their views of prostitution, the individual sex worker, and their experiences of Cambodia’s sex industry. Due to its comparative nature, the research seeks to deliver information on the differences in culture between the foreign and Cambodian men who seek to pay for sexual services. Results point to the need for proper sex and gender education as well as different approaches when planning projects to reach out to men purchasing sex. In gaining a deeper knowledge of the beliefs and behaviours among the demand population, the findings suggest more holistic approaches are needed to combat the exploitation of sexual services in Cambodia.

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM
PhD Candidate at the Fundamental Rights and Constitutionalism Research Group at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel

ABSTRACT

Human trafficking is lucrative crime, often trans border, affecting every country in the world. In the course of this crime victims are subjected heinous experiences. Consequently the crime has been described as a grave violation of human rights. However, there are those that question the legal nature of trafficking in human beings, and whether it really is a violation of human rights. This article explores the relationship between human trafficking and human rights, and analyses what are the impacts of that relationship on State’s duties to fight the crime.

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Kate Garbers
Managing Director of the multi-award-winning non-governmental organisation Unseen

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the United Kingdom’s approach to prosecutions and convictions of modern slavery and human trafficking offences. It focuses on the UK’s journey and the progress that it has made thus far, from having no legislation by which to tackle this crime to the newly enacted Modern Slavery Act (2015). The paper observes the low numbers of prosecutions leading to convictions as well as the difficulty in effective data collation and recording of trafficking offences. The paper focuses on a non-governmental organisations experience of working with victims and law enforcement agencies, using a sample of seventy four case files to record interactions with the criminal justice process. Further the paper suggests that in order for the Modern Slavery Act (2015) to obtain successful convictions, prosecution should only be seen as part of the solution and not the whole solution. It will only be a successful part of the UK narrative if it is used in conjunction with effective, long-term victim support and prevention efforts.

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Oscar Mmbali, B DIV
Doctoral Candidate and researcher at the Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand

INTRODUCTION

An International Labor Organization report (2015) indicates that over 60% of the global labor force work without formal contract. Most of this population is in developing countries. Among the waged and salaried population, less than 42% of the labor force has permanent work contract. In countries with available data; the dominant form of employment is temporal work, informal jobs with no contracts and own arrangement sometimes unpaid work. This is precipitated by long term unemployment due to previous harsh economic conditions and insecurity. Such prevailing conditions have characterized migration movements within and between countries. Over the recent years, human trafficking and migrant labor issues have continued to strike international relations discourse.

Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery

$12.00

Book Author: Rahila Gupta

REVIEWED BY:

Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D.
International Development Doctoral Program, The University of Southern Mississippi

David L. Butler, PhD
Department of Political Science, International Development and International Affairs, The University of Southern Mississippi

INTRODUCTION

In July 2014, the authors were in London. During one afternoon, one of the authors walked from North London through the central district across the Thames River to the Southbank. During this walk, the author found a vibrant city with trade, tourists and culture all engaged in a hive of activity. During one sleepless evening, the author took the same walk between the hours of 2am-5am. The city of London was transformed at this time. Instead of vendors and tourists engaging in a silent capitalist dance, there were drug dealers, gangs, prostitutes, pimps, and law enforcement in clusters around the city. The transformation from a tourist and financial mecca to that of a haven for vices and criminal activity by the movement of the hands on tower clock that houses Big Ben was eye opening. The fact that London has a robust seedy underbelly that emerged as prominent as the Beefeaters in the Tower of London would not shock anyone who has read Rahila Gupta’s Enslaved: The New British Slavery.  Gupta is a writer, journalist and member of the Management Committee of Southall Black Sisters (SBS), a not-for-profit organization servicing the needs of black and minority ethnic women. She is the author or co-author of at least half a dozen additional books.

Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices

$12.00

Book Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot

REVIEWED BY:

Eve Aronson, M.A.
Holds a dual cum laude Master’s degree from Utrecht University in the Netherlands and Central European University in Hungary. She writes about issues of human trafficking in the US and the Netherlands.

INTRODUCTION

In a world increasingly without boundaries, there is a need to (re)shape responses to borderless crimes accordingly. Human trafficking is a transgressive phenomenon by nature and calls for a diverse, multi-sector response. In 2009, the introduction of ‘Partnership’ to the existing Prevention-Protection-Prosecution response model for human trafficking signaled an important acknowledgement that this fourth “P” is essential to effective anti-trafficking collaboration. In her book, Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices, Dr. Kirsten Foot unpacks the cross-sector implications and manifestations of partnerships through an extensive and critical overview of the contemporary anti-trafficking landscape in the United States. Foot’s book, which is 215 pages and includes six Chapters, also includes extensive Notes and Collaboration Resources sections.

Volume 3, Issue 1 (August 2016)

$27.00

Click the article title links to explore and purchase individual articles.

Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)

Reviewed by Eve Aronson, M.A. (Holds a dual cum laude Master’s degree from Utrecht University in the Netherlands and Central European University in Hungary. She writes about issues of human trafficking
in the US and the Netherlands.)

Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery (Author: Rahila Gupta)

Reviewed by Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D. (International Development Doctoral Program, The University of Southern Mississippi) and David L. Butler, PhD (Department of Political Science, International Development and International Affairs, The University of Southern Mississippi)

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand

Oscar Mmbali, B DIV (Doctoral Candidate and researcher at the Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand)

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK

Kate Garbers (Managing Director of the multi-award-winning non-governmental organisation Unseen)

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking

Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM (PhD Candidate at the Fundamental Rights and Constitutionalism Research Group at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel)

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia

Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS (Provides investigative consultation and training to faith-based organizations that are responding to allegations of child abuse and inappropriate behavior worldwide. Her research focuses on restorative justice and better understanding the demand segment of human trafficking); Glenn Miles, PhD (Lecturer in Childhood Studies and Child Public Health at Swansea University in Wales, UK, and Senior Research Advisor for upQ International.); James Havey (Currently working in collaboration with an NGO called Chab Dai as an LGBTQ social activist and researcher.)

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study

Bodean Hedwards (PhD candidate, Former Researcher, Southeast Asia, Walk Free Foundation) and Katharine Bryant, MA (Research Manager, Walk Free Foundation)

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda

Jillian LaBranche, M.A. (Associate of the Human Trafficking Center, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver)

Volume 2, Issue 2 (December 2015)

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Jesse Bach, PhD
Cleveland State University. Executive Director of The Imagine Foundation

Courtney Mintz
Student, Business Administration and Criminal Justice, University of Dubuque

Jennifer Dohy, MS
Doctoral Candidate, MS and BS in Education, Cleveland State University

ABSTRACT

The Super Bowl is commonly known as the single largest human trafficking incident in the United States where an inordinate number of children may be trafficked in or around the host area to engage in commercial sex. To examine this claim, our research team mined publicly available data from a major website known to host commercial sex advertisements for three months before and two months after Super Bowl XLVIII, held in East Rutherford, New Jersey.

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Lori Celaya, PhD
Assistant Professor of Spanish, Latin America, Border and US Latino Studies, University of Idaho Department of Modern Languages and Cultures

Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD
University of Idaho Department of Modern Languages and Cultures

INTRODUCTION

In spite of efforts initiated in 1926 by the League of Nations, (presently, the United Nations, 1946) or by the members of international organizations that signed the most recent protocols to address the issue of human trafficking in November of 2000, the problem persists and positive outcomes have not materialized. Subsequently, Mexico has introduced national efforts to eliminate human trafficking. In fact, these initiatives are subsequent to the efforts launched by the United Nations in 2000 and were passed in 2007, specifically to address these human rights violations: the first one, “The General Law Granting Access to Women to a Violence-Free Life,” and a second decree, specifically addressing human trafficking, “Law to Prevent and Condemn Human Trafficking” (Acharya 2012, 638-9). These laws are significant, since prior to their creation no legal framework existed in Mexico to address human trafficking.

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Erica Baer, PhD
Instructor of Forensics, Department of Justice Studies, Florida Gulf Coast University. PhD, Forensic Psychology, Alliant International University Research associate with the Resource Center on Human Trafficking at FGCU

Refael Olivares, MA
Coordinator, Resource Center on Human Trafficking, Florida Gulf Coast University. MA, Counseling Psychology, Hodges University. Several years experience in agencies serving human trafficking victims. Past chair of the SW Florida Coalition on Human Trafficking and until his appointment in 2013 as Coordinator of the FGCU Resource Center served as Program Director for Human Trafficking for Catholic Charities, SW Florida Region.

Johnny McGaha, PhD
Professor and Director, Resource Center on Human Trafficking, Florida Gulf Coast University, Department of Justice Studies. Several publications and national presentations on Human Trafficking. Training consultant to the Department of State/Homeland Security and to the Republic of Moldova’s Center to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Program evaluator DOJ grants on Human Trafficking and Victims Services, Fort Myers, Florida. Former Chair, Lee County (FL) Task Force on Human trafficking. Founder, Resource Center on Human Trafficking

Tama Koss Caldron, JD
Assistant U.S. Attorney, Middle District of Florida. JD, University of Florida. Several years experience as federal prosecutor including successful prosecution of trafficking cases.Currently Chair, SW Florida Regional Task Force on Human Trafficking

ABSTRACT

The hidden nature of the horrendous crime of trafficking in persons makes it difficult to accurately determine the extent of the problem, both nationally and locally. Additionally, the complexities, time consuming investigations, resource and jurisdictional challenges, issues with traumatized victims who are often reluctant to identify, and/or testify against the traffickers, all result in low levels of prosecution. Any successful outcome of these difficult cases mandates the strong communication and collaboration of all agencies involved, including law enforcement, prosecution, and a variety of victim’s services. This paper presents one relatively successful task force model.

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Nicole Fiorentino, MA
Doctoral Candidate, International Conflict Management, Kennesaw State University. MA, Central and Eastern European Studies, La Salle University. BA, San Diego State University

INTRODUCTION

The Republic of Moldova has, in recent years, strengthened its legislation in relation to the crime of human trafficking. The country’s current legislation focuses on four areas: 1) the protection of victims; 2) prosecution of criminals; 3) prevention of the crime; and 4) partnership of stakeholders. This paper will identify and analyze the prosecutorial legislation existing in the Moldovan Criminal Code, initially in the broader context of Trafficking in Human Beings as a whole, and subsequently concentrating on each of the aforementioned areas, applicable to Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking and Child Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova.

Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Eileen P. Scully

Historian on the faculty of Bennington College in Vermont

ABSTRACT

Modern international trafficking in forced labor took hold during the 1850s, and crossed into the twentieth century as a seemingly intractable global phenomenon. Contemporaries described this worldwide enterprise as the “white slave trade.” As shorthand for sex-trafficking, “the white slave trade” has a very long pedigree. The first cross-national, public-private coalition against trafficking in women and children was forged in the late nineteenth century by the London-based National Vigilance Association. This coalition generated the foundational treaties and directional momentum for international anti-trafficking projects across the twentieth century and into the twenty-first.

Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD

Professor of Clinical Mental Health Counseling at Hodges University in Fort Myers, Florida. Licensed Social Worker. Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist

Yaroslaba Garcia, MA

Doctoral Candidate. Clinical Director at Abuse Counseling and Treatment, Inc. President of the Southwest Florida Coalition Against Human Trafficking. Adjunct Professor at Hodges University

INTRODUCTION

Human Trafficking (HT) literature identifies restricted or narrowly focused funding and difficulty with the coordination of services for HT survivors. This focus group study attempts to discern service strengths and issues at the local level in Lee and Collier counties in Southwest Florida. A three step grounded theory process was utilized in order to analyze the focus group data. The unprecedented level of survivor need was theorized to strain the existing services network. HT cases expose less organized parts of the service network which highlights a lack of organized funding sources and less efficiency. The addition of an essential fourth P (partnership), to prevention, protection and prosecution efforts, would guide efforts toward more evolved service networks. Suggestions include creation of a state level entity which can manage a regionally coordinated case management system, and the establishment of a clearinghouse for data and research.

Volume 2, Issue 2 (December 2015)

$27.00

Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas

Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD (Professor of Clinical Mental Health Counseling at Hodges University in Fort Myers, Florida. Licensed Social Worker. Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist)Yaroslaba Garcia, MA (Doctoral Candidate, Clinical Director at Abuse Counseling and Treatment, Inc. President of the Southwest Florida Coalition Against Human Trafficking. Adjunct Professor at Hodges University)

Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking

Eileen P. Scully, PhD (Historian on the faculty of Bennington College in Vermont)

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova

Nicole Fiorentino, MA (Doctoral Candidate, International Conflict Management, Kennesaw State University. MA, Central and Eastern European Studies, La Salle University. BA, History, San Diego State University)

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts

Erica Baer, PhD (Instructor of Forensics, Department of Justice Studies, Florida Gulf Coast University. PhD, Forensic Psychology, Alliant International University)Refael Olivares, MA (Coordinator, Resource Center on Human Trafficking, Florida Gulf Coast University. MA, Counseling Psychology, Hodges University)Johnny McGaha, PhD (Professor and Director, Resource Center on Human Trafficking, Florida Gulf Coast University, Department of Justice Studies)Tama Koss Caldarone, JD (Assistant U.S. Attorney, Middle District of Florida. JD, University of Florida. Chair, SW Florida Regional Task Force on Human Trafficking)

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client

Lori Celaya, PhD (Assistant Professor of Spanish, Latin America, Border and US Latino Studies, University of Idaho Department of Modern Languages and Cultures)Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD (University of Idaho Department of Modern Languages and Cultures)

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII

Jesse Bach, PhD (Cleveland State University. Executive Director of The Imagine Foundation)Courtney Mintz (Student, Business Administration and Criminal Justice, University of Dubuque)Jennifer Dohy, MS (Doctoral Candidate, MS and BS in Education, Cleveland State University)

Volume 2, Issue 1 (January 2015)

Considering a Regional Approach to Combating Human Trafficking in the Caribbean: The ECOWAS Example

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Jill St. John, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC)
Lecturer in Law, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill
Tom Durbin, 
LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC)
Lecturer in Law, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill

ABSTRACT:

This paper seeks to explore the current practices employed in two regional organisations with regards combating human trafficking. Both West Africa, through ECOWAS, and the Caribbean, through CARICOM, have established regional agreements with neighbouring states to achieve regional cooperation where possible. However CARICOM policies are in their infancy with regards human trafficking, while ECOWAS has a vast network of agreements in place. This paper will consider the successes of the ECOWAS agreements and their possible assistance and relevance to the Caribbean to assist in CARICOM’s fight against human trafficking.

Toward Assessment of Child Survivors of Restavèk in Haiti: Development and Evaluation of a Locally Adapted Psychosocial Assessment Instrument

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Cara L. Kennedy, PhD
Research Development Specialist in the College of Arts and Humanities at the University of Maryland

ABSTRACT:

Restavèk is a form of child domestic slavery in Haiti that affects an estimated 300,000 children. This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument to assess mental health and psychosocial problems among survivors of restavèk living in Port au Prince, Haiti. The Youth Self-Report was adapted to reflect the mental health problems that emerged in a previous qualitative study among the same target population. Internal consistency reliability scores were acceptable to good for all scales. Test-retest reliability scores were adequate for all scales, and good for the internalizing and total problems scales. Criterion validity could not be assessed.

Rise, Unite, Support: Doing “No Harm” in the Anti-Trafficking Movement

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Karen Countryman-Roswurm, LMSW, PhD
Founder and Executive Director, Center for Combating Human Trafficking and Assistant Professor, School of Social Work, Wichita State University

ABSTRACT:

Awareness regarding domestic sex trafficking has increased rapidly over the last decade. However, as general awareness increases so too does the interest of multidisciplinary professionals and concerned citizens who, while well intended, cause significant strain on the anti-trafficking movement. Drawing upon personal, professional, and academic research expertise in the areas of runaway, homeless, and street youth, as well as domestic sex trafficking, this article provides insight into the current struggles within the anti-trafficking movement. It serves as a cry for those who wish to join the anti-trafficking movement to create contexts in which survivor-leaders are recognized and treated as competent leaders and in which current efforts are intentionally supported. Furthermore, it serves as a call of encouragement for survivors to unite; to stand up for themselves as individuals and as a collective group, and to recognize and utilize the full potential of their malleability, strength, knowledge, and passion.

Trafficking in Human Beings as an Enterprise: Highlighting Key Questions About Data Shortage on the Business Side

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Julia Muraszkiewicz
PhD Researcher at Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Dr. Hayley Watson
Senior Research Analyst at Trilateral Research & Consulting
Kush Wadhwa
Senior Partner at Trilateral Research & Consulting
Dr. Paul De Hert
Professor at Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Head of the Department Interdisciplinary Legal Studies

ABSTRACT:

Researchers and policymakers face a shortage of data on the business side of human trafficking. This inevitably leads to problems when trying to combat this crime. Questions such as: who is involved in trafficking, how do they operate, what is their relationship with organised crime groups (or other traffickers and third parties) remain unanswered. The purpose of this article is to harvest the knowledge on what we know about trafficking as a criminal enterprise and, in turn, encourage further research. The article also aims to show that the challenges encountered by researchers.

Volume 2, Issue 1 (January 2015)

$27.00

Trafficking in Human Beings as an Enterprise: Highlighting Key Questions About Data Shortage on the Business Side

Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD (researcher at Vrije Universiteit Brussel); Dr. Hayley Watson (senior research analyst at Trilateral Research & Consulting)Kush Wadhwa (senior partner at Trilateral Research & Consulting)Dr. Paul De Hert (Professor at Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Head of the Department Interdisciplinary Legal Studies)

Rise, Unite, Support: Doing “No Harm” in the Anti-Trafficking Movement

Karen Countryman-Roswurm, LMSW, PhD (Founder and Executive Director, Center for Combating Human Trafficking and Assistant Professor, School of Social Work, Wichita State University)

Toward Assessment of Child Survivors of Restavèk in Haiti: Development and Evaluation of a Locally Adapted Psychosocial Assessment Instrument

Cara L. Kennedy, PhD (research development specialist in the College of Arts and Humanities at the University of Maryland)

Considering a Regional Approach to Combating Human Trafficking in the Caribbean: The ECOWAS Example

Jill St. George, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC) (Lecturer in Law, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill); Tom Durbin, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC) (Lecturer in Law, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill)

Volume 1, Issue 2 (July 2014)

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions?

$12.00

AUTHORS:

Alexander Esseesse
Stetson University College of Law J.D. Candidate, 2015

Emily Tocci
Juris Doctoral Candidate, 2015; Trainer, International Association of Human Trafficking Investigators

EXCERPT:

Human trafficking is a modern form of slavery. Victims of human trafficking are faced with numerous and complex issues ranging from bodily injury caused by physical harm to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) generated by repeated abuse, intimidation, and fear. While varying forms of human exploitation have been in existence for millennia, over the past two decades countries have taken a more serious approach to addressing the problem of human trafficking by enacting legislation, improving resources to victims, and encouraging more education of law enforcement officials. Despite the increase in the awareness of human trafficking, “most convictions still take place in only a few countries.” Between 2007 and 2008, 40% of the more than 150 countries studied in the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Global TIP Report had not secured a single human trafficking conviction. By the end of 2008, around two-thirds of the countries in the Global TIP Report had some form of law criminalizing the sexual exploitation or labor exploitation of men, women, and children. In early 2009, ninety-one countries from the Global TIP Report had prosecuted a human trafficking case with seventy-three of these countries securing convictions. The desire for countries to develop and implement human trafficking laws is on the rise, but simply enacting human trafficking laws does not mean that successful prosecutions and convictions will necessarily follow.

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D.
Former Special Deputy Attorney General, California Department of Justice

Book authors: Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten

EXCERPT:

Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery is a compilation of first-person heart breaking stories of human trafficking and enslavement. Authors Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten are directors of the American Anti-Slavery Group. Jesse Sage has appeared on National Public Radio, BET, Pacifica Radio, and has spoken widely across the country against slavery.

These stories are not told by an author summarizing their notes from interviews, rather they are the actual words of the victim themselves – their unvarnished words, written and translated in their own unique verbal dialects, using their own syntax. Telling their stories in this format allows the reader to gain a deeper understanding of their victimization. As the reader quiets their mind, you are able to hear the voice of the presenter. Within their words you will find their hurt palpable, their anger tangible, and their confusion understandable. The authors have done a commanding job of allowing the victim to tell their own story.

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Roger-Claude Liwanga, LLM
Fellow on Human Trafficking and Forced Labor Program at Harvard University’s FXB Center for Health and Human Rights

ABSTRACT:

This article estimates the contribution of child labor to the production of mined minerals and calculates the profit made by manufacturers involved in the supply chains of child-labor minerals. Several thousands of children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) work in the artisanal and small-scale mines under dangerous conditions to extract a variety of minerals, including those used in the fabrication of modern electronics. But there is no detailed data on the scope of productivity of child-miners, the value of their production at the world market, and the profit made by those buying and using their minerals. The lack of data on this issue is occasioned by the quasi-secrecy surrounding the supply chains of child-labor minerals. The paper uses a simple method of estimation based on economic assumptions and available data to calculate the contribution of child-miners in the DRC to the cobalt production at the national and international level, and to estimate the profit made by electronic manufacturers that use cobalt tainted with child-labor in their products.

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Robert Spires, PhD
Assistant Professor, Middle Grades, Secondary, Reading, & Deaf Education, Valdosta State University

ABSTRACT:

In this qualitative case study, two Thai Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) shelters/schools working with human trafficking survivors and at-risk populations of children ages 5-18 were examined. This study takes the stance that the work of the NGOs needs to be understood through the first-hand perceptions and attitudes of NGO staff and the children they serve. Education is an intervention designed to achieve the mission of both NGOs. Education is treated as a means of preventing human trafficking and protecting human trafficking survivors from returning to exploitative situations, though the effectiveness of the intervention is unclear. This study sought an understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of the staff and children at the NGOs. Thematic findings explored cultural, social, economic and political issues impacting the children served at the NGOs. The issues of statelessness and poverty as well as secondary issues were explored through interviews with students, teachers and staff at the NGOs. NGO efforts to reduce the vulnerability of children are discussed, as well as the barriers that both children and NGOs face in vulnerability reduction efforts.

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Tina Davis
International award-winning documentary maker, University of Sydney PhD Candidate, board member of the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Association.

ABSTRACT:

There has been a change in the use of the au pair scheme in the past fifteen years that has created a shift from its original intention as a cultural exchange program. Socio-economic change in societies in the South and East has led to a new wave of female migrants seeking legal work opportunities in European countries, and change in the North has led to an increase in demand for domestic workers. The au pair program has become a means to cover these needs. Yet the use of the au pair institution as a temporary domestic work system creates challenges that not only contradict its intention, but also fail to offer labor rights and protection to the migrant women who enter the program to earn money. This article examines the au pair system in Norway, a country known for social and gender equality and a strongly developed welfare system based on social democratic ideals of solidarity. The article focuses in particular on how the au pair scheme is being misused as a temporary domestic work system by both the host families and the au pairs, and the exploitation and human trafficking cases that have emerged as a consequence in recent years.

Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Rodney Green, MSc
Program Manager, Collaboratory for Strategic Partnerships and Applied Research, Messiah College

ABSTRACT:

Historically, organizations combatting trafficking for sexual exploitation in India have struggled to cooperate. Due to the multifaceted demands of protecting vulnerable populations and confronting criminal networks, a lack of cooperation can lead to interventions that are ineffective or detrimental. Multiple case studies have indicated that there are three interrelated challenges that hinder cooperation: complex political landscapes, limited vision and funding dedicated to inter-organizational relationships, and a lack of expertise in particular disciplines. One case study indicated that coordinated funding and capacity building fueled sustainable cooperation to form a counter-force that can more effectively combat sexual exploitation and trafficking in India.

Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions

$12.00

AUTHOR:

David Hartless
Municipal Police Officer, Ontario, Canada

EXCERPT:

Human Trafficking is a crime that is only recently starting to come into the consciousness of the Canadian public. Although it is an active crime occurring worldwide, it has traditionally been seen as a third world problem. Due to a combination of several high profile cases, extensive advocacy work from non-governmental organizations (NGO’s), and recent amendments to the criminal code of Canada, HT is slowly being exposed as a global organized crime problem (Interpol 2012). It is also, more specifically, a Canadian organized crime problem (Government of Canada 2011). In my opinion, the single greatest cause of Canadians’ lack of knowledge of this horrendous crime is “NIMBY” or the Not In My Back Yard view permeating people’s attitudes. Canadians as a whole generally do not believe such things can happen in this country and if it does happen, they are convinced it cannot possibly happen in their town or province. It is this attitude that needs to change. This is something that can be done only through enhanced awareness, intensive law enforcement action, and education by credible subject matter experts.

A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Davina Durgana
Adjunct Instructor and Doctoral Candidate; Human Trafficking Specialist; School of International Service, American University

EXCERPT:

This article provides the first concerted effort to combine major relevant factors measuring and contributing to vulnerability to human trafficking in the United States for statistical extrapolation of victim prevalence. While utilizing the human security framework to better conceptualize the risks of human trafficking for vulnerable individuals remains an underdeveloped academic contribution, this project proposes a theoretically more ambitious and complete response to underpin prevalence and forecasting models. Operationalizing the human security framework to capture pervasive potential risks is only the first of three parts of a comprehensive theoretical approach to assessing human trafficking vulnerability. I argue that measuring vulnerability requires consideration and isolation of first structurally pervasive threats or risks, then those that are regionally specific, and finally those that are individually experienced. The human security literature best relates to the first task of distinguishing structurally pervasive threats among the sub-population of vulnerable individuals. The control variables employed in the next stage refer to the regional specification of the model. In this project, I will have selected two control variables that account for regional legislation and protection efforts that correspond with my dependent variable of human trafficking incidences as reported to the National Human Trafficking Hotline. The final component of my operational model is theoretically derived from the requirement that in order for potential risk to become actualized or likely risk, it must be individually experienced. This is the most challenging variable to operationalize given the underdeveloped work on “Demand” in this regard, and the developed world’s particular culpability in this area. However, in order to operationalize this final component, I will incorporate one variable that relates directly to Demand, or the specific likelihood that one is to face punitive action based on their consumption of trafficked goods or sex as a deterrent based on available law enforcement data. Unfortunately, this data has notoriously demonstrated that there are significantly low prosecution and arrest rates of the general public for these crimes, which suggests a relatively non-existent deterrent to demanding trafficked sex, labor, goods, and services.

Volume 1, Issue 2 (July 2014)

$27.00

A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures

Davina Durgana (Adjunct Instructor and Doctoral Candidate; Human Trafficking Specialist; School of International Service, American University)

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions

Alexander Esseesse (Stetson University College of Law Juris Doctoral Candidate, 2015); Emily Tocci (Juris Doctoral Candidate, 2015; Trainer, International Association of Human Trafficking Investigators)

Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions

David Hartless (Municipal Police Officer, Ontario, Canada)

Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India

Rodney Green, MSc (Program Manager, Collaboratory for Strategic Partnerships and Applied Research, Messiah College)

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?

Tina Davis (International award-winning documentary maker, University of Sydney PhD Candidate, board member of the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Association)

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs

Robert Spires, PhD (Assistant Professor, Middle Grades, Secondary, Reading, & Deaf Education, Valdosta State University)

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits?

Roger-Claude Liwanga , LLM (Fellow on Human Trafficking and Forced Labor Program at Harvard University’s FXB Center for Health and Human Rights)

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten

Reviewed by Benjamin Thomas Greer (Former Special Deputy Attorney General, California Department of Justice)

Volume 1, Issue 1 (February 2014)

Ending Slavery

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Aidan McQuade, PhD
Director of Anti-Slavery International, the oldest international human rights organization in the world.

EXCERPT:

There is a famous line in Milan Kundera’s The Book of Laughter and Forgetting when his character Mirek asserts that “The struggle of man against power is the struggle of memory against forgetting.”

Beyond the complexities that Kundera wished to convey with in his story this idea of memory against forgetting resonates in a number of ways in relation to the contemporary struggle against slavery because before anyone can ever be convinced to take action in this struggle they must throw off the comforting myth that slavery is a thing of the past. Instead they must acknowledge that slavery remains a major contemporary problem. They must also remember that , like the human rights struggles of the past, the struggle to end contemporary slavery must of necessity emerge out of an accumulation of numberless local and national struggles waged by flawed human beings for a plurality of, sometimes self-contradictory, reasons.

This is because of the diverse nature of slavery itself: a life lived in bonded labour in Indian brick kilns is different in important respects from that of a Nepalese domestic worker in Lebanon, or a child slave working in the cocoa fields of West Africa or the cotton fields of Uzbekistan or a forced labourer in American agriculture. Hence the responses to these problems must be nuanced and adjusted to the realities of those particular abuses.

However there are some significant similarities: generally speaking, slavery emerges at the conjunction of three factors: vulnerability, usually this is poverty but it can simply be about physical weakness or social isolation in a country where you do not speak the language; discrimination; and failure of government and rule of law.

Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Bosha Bombe
B.A. in History; M.A. in Social Anthropology

ABSTRACT:

Slavery was officially abolished in Ethiopia by Emperor Haile Sellassie in 1942. Despite the abolitionary law slaves and their descendants have continually been marginalized in the country (especially in the peripheral parts of southwestern Ethiopia) from the time the law passed until today. In the Gamo community of southern Ethiopia, descendants of former slaves carry the identity of their ancestors and as the result they are often harshly excluded. Today, not only are they considered impure, but their perceived impurity is believed to be contagious; communicable to non-slave descendants during rites of passage. In order to escape the severe discrimination, slave descendants change their identity by redeeming themselves through indigenous ritual mechanism called wozzo ritual. However, the wozzo ritual builds the economy of former slave masters and ritual experts while leaving redeemed slave descendants economically damaged. This study is both diachronic and synchronic; it looks at the history of slavery, contemporary perspectives and practices of slavery and slave redemption in Ganta (Gamo) society of southern Ethiopia.

A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective

$12.00

AUTHOR:

John Donoghue
Associate Professor of History at Loyola University Chicago

ABSTRACT:

The differences between slavery now and then are less important than the historical links that bind them, links in an awful chain of bondage that bind the history of the transatlantic slave trade from Africa to the resurgence of slavery in Africa today. As this article illustrates, nowhere is this truer, both in historical and contemporary terms, than in the Congo. The links binding the Congo to the history of human bondage were first forged in the crucible of early modern capitalism and they have been made fast by the proliferation of “free market reform” today, which despite the fundamentalist cant of its advocates, has hardly proven to be a force of human liberation; instead, placing the last 500 years of the Congo region in global context, we can see how capitalism has proven to be the world’s greatest purveyor of human bondage. The article concludes with an argument that the reconstruction of civil society in the Democratic Republic of Congo after decades of war, dictatorship, and neo-colonial rule depends crucially on the continued success of an already impressive Congolese abolitionist movement. Without making an end to slavery, once and for all, civil society can hardly prosper in a country where slavery has historically brought about its destruction.

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Benjamin Thomas Greer, JD
Former Special Deputy Attorney General, California Department of Justice, Human Trafficking Special Projects Team

ABSTRACT:

Trafficking is a highly dynamic and fluid criminal phenomenon. Determined traffickers react remarkably well to consumer demand and under-regulated economic sectors and easily adapt to legislative weaknesses. Corporate globalization of manufacturing and storefronts is contributing to human trafficking; aiding in forced labor in becoming the fastest growing and the third most widespread criminal enterprise in the world. As technology advances, allowing greater and easier access to goods from more remote countries, vulnerable populations become easier targets for traffickers to exploit. Understanding U.S. markets are key destinations for goods, enlightened states are looking to bolster their anti-trafficking criminal codes by requiring businesses to better clarify their efforts to discourage human trafficking/forced labor within their supply chains. The California State Legislature has begun an aggressive approach aimed at fostering greater public awareness of slave labor by requiring certain businesses to clearly articulate their anti-trafficking/anti-forced labor policies. California was the first government – local, state or federal – to codify mandatory policy disclosures. The California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 requires businesses domiciled in California and earning more that $100 million to conspicuously disclose on their publically accessed webpage, what policies, if any, they have implemented to detect and fight slave labor. The legislature intended to equip the common consumer with the needed information to effectively hold businesses accountable for human rights abuses. In order for the public to properly hold businesses accountable for their labor practices, it is essential the names of business subject to the disclosure be made public. The California Public Records Act should be a tool for concerned consumers and advocates to obtain the statutory list of affected companies.

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Roger-Claude Liwanga, JD
Harvard Fellow, Visiting Scholar with Boston University’s African Studies Center, Founder of Promote Congo

ABSTRACT:

This paper highlights the necessity of adopting a comprehensive anti-human trafficking law in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC ratified a number of international instruments prohibiting human trafficking, such as the Palermo Protocol, which recommend it to take legislative measures against human trafficking domestically. But so far, the DRC has not yet adopted a comprehensive anti-human trafficking law. With the increasing prevalence of human trafficking, the existing fragmented provisions on trafficking in the DRC (catalogued within the Law 06/018 amending the Penal Code, the Labor Code and the Law 09/001 on the Protection of the Child) are not sufficient to address the scourge, given the limited scope of their regulation of human trafficking. Countless victims of trafficking, particularly adults who are subjected to bonded labor, are unprotected by the law. Following the example of comprehensive anti-human trafficking legislations in the United States, Italy, Burkina Faso, Kenya or South Africa, the DRC should also adopt its own version of comprehensive anti-human trafficking law to increase its likelihood of effectively protecting trafficking victims, investigating trafficking offences, prosecuting trafficking offenders, and deterring potential traffickers. This paper recommends a sketch of a holistic anti-human trafficking law which is adapted to the DRC’s context.

Volume 1, Issue 1 (February 2014)

$27.00

Unlocking the Science of Slavery

Kevin Bales, PhD (Professor of Contemporary Slavery at the Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation, co-founder of Free the Slaves)

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking

Roger-Claude Liwanga, J.D. (Harvard Fellow, Visiting Scholar with Boston University’s African Studies Center, Founder of Promote Congo)

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?

Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D. (Former Special Deputy Attorney General, California Department of Justice, Human Trafficking Special Projects Team)

A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective

John Donoghue (Associate Professor of History at Loyola University Chicago)

Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia

Bosha Bombe (B.A. in History; M.A. in Social Anthropology)

Ending Slavery

Aidan McQuade, PhD (Director of Anti-Slavery International, the oldest international human rights organization in the world)

Unlocking the Science of Slavery

$12.00

AUTHOR:

Kevin Bales, PhD
Professor of Contemporary Slavery at the Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation; co-founder of Free the Slaves

EXCERPT:

After the Battle of Britain, in late 1942, Winston Churchill famously said, “Now this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end, but it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.” In the world of anti-slavery research and campaigning it can be argued that we are now approaching the “end of the beginning” of this the fourth great anti-slavery movement in human history. From a simplistic, emotive, disparate, and disorganized minority cause, slavery is quickly becoming an issue of global concern, and is now generating global responses. This has occurred for a number of reasons: increased awareness, a recognition of the possibility of eradication, and a growing understanding of the economic and social cost of slavery are just a few of those reasons. There is history to be written of the opening stages of this anti-slavery movement, but as we clamber over this tipping point it is time to think hard about the future.

From Volume 1, Issue 1
February 2014